A multiplexer is a data selector device that selects one input from several input lines, depending upon the enabled, select lines, and yields one single output. A multiplexer of 2 n inputs has n select linesare used to select which input line to send to the output. These devices are used extensively in the areas where the multiple data can be transferred over a single line like in the communication systems and bus architecture hardware.

Visit this post for a crystal clear explanation to multiplexers. The gate-level abstraction is the lowest level of modeling. The gate-level modeling style uses the built-in basic logic gates predefined in Verilog.

We only need to know the logic diagram of the system since the only requirement is to know the layout of the particular logic gates.

The port-list will contain the output variable first in gate-level modeling. This is because the built-in logic gates are designed such that the output is written first, followed by the other input variables or signals.

The intermediate signals are declared as wires. Note that the intermediate signals are those that are not involved in the port list. Example: signals that are emerging from the NOT gate.

Time for us to write for the logic gates. Separate the list for a particular gate by appropriate brackets, if there exists more than one same logic gate. Here s0bar and s1bar are the output to the first and second NOT gate respectively and s0 and s1 are the input to the first and second NOT gate. This hardware schematic is the RTL design of the circuit.

Notice the resemblance between the logic circuit of MUX and this picture. It is clear that the gate-level modeling will give the exact involved hardware in the circuit of the system. The dataflow modeling represents the flow of the data. It is described through the data flow through the combinational circuits rather than the logic gates used. It is necessary to know the logical expression of the circuit to make a dataflow model.

The equation for MUX is:. Start with the module and input-output declaration.It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges currents ; these two are often described as the sources of the field. Course Objectives:. The following handwritten notes can improve your skills in magnetic fields as well.

I am sure the notes can give Huge concepts in detail way to u. Chapter No. PDF Notes. Electric flux density, Gauss law, and divergence. Energy and potential. The steady magnetic field. Magnetic forces, materials, and inductance.

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Hand Written Notes. E-Books Download. VTU Question Papers. About GATE.There are six different switch primitives transistor models used in Verilog, nmos, pmos and cmos and the corresponding three resistive versions rnmos, rpmos and rcmos. The cmos type of switches have two gates and so have two control signals.

Transmission gates are bi-directional and can be resistive or non-resistive. Resistive devices reduce the signal strength which appears on the output by one level.

All the switches only pass signals from source to drain, incorrect wiring of the devices will result in high impedance outputs.

Transmission gates tran and rtran are permanently on and do not have a control line. Tran can be used to interface two wires with separate drives, and rtran can be used to weaken signals.

Switch Primitives There are six different switch primitives transistor models used in Verilog, nmos, pmos and cmos and the corresponding three resistive versions rnmos, rpmos and rcmos. Uni-directional PMOS switch. Resistive PMOS switch. Uni-directional NMOS switch. Resistive NMOS switch. Uni-directional CMOS switch. Resistive CMOS switch. Bi-directional transistor High. Bi-directional transistor Low. Resistive Transistor High.

Resistive Transistor Low. Bi-directional pass transistor. Resistive pass transistor. Pull up resistor. Pull down resistor. Logic Values and signal Strengths. Logic Value.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time.

**Conflict Serializable Schedule 2 - DBMS**

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have tried searching the documentation for a method to initialize a qubit to a certain value and to create a new unitary gate with specified values. In the documentation, I found thiswhich is the class of a Quantum Gate.

I tried to make a new instance of this class but I couldn't because not much documentation has been done about the arguments to be passed while initializing the instance of the class. As of QISKit v0. Obviously, you can use the u3 function to set a qubit to any value. For example, this is how you can implement the X -gate and apply it to some qubit qr[0] via the U3 -gate:.

Learn more. How to create a new quantum gate and qubit initialised to a certain value Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 1 month ago. Active 2 years ago.

Viewed times. Parth Jatakia Parth Jatakia 75 5 5 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Alexander Pozdneev Alexander Pozdneev 11 11 silver badges 23 23 bronze badges. Is there a way to create generic n Qubit gates? ParthJatakia, if you want to run on the real hardware, you would need to manually decompose your particular unitary matrix into a sequence of the CNOT - and U3 -gates. Then, you might want to keep it as your own extension see github for how it is done for the standard gates.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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Skip to content. Permalink Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

Sign up. Branch: master. Find file Copy path. Cryoris Implement multi-controlled U1 as gate dbc Apr 2, Raw Blame History. C Copyright IBM This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2. Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating that they have been altered from the originals.

If None, use all 1s. Returns: ControlledGate: controlled version of this gate. Can be removed when Cu3Gate gets removed. This is a controlled version of the U3 gate generic single qubit rotation. It is restricted to 3 parameters, and so cannot cover generic two-qubit controlled gates. Thus a textbook matrix for this gate will be This function uses the gray code to propagate down to the last qubit.

Ported and adapted from Aqua github. You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. This code is part of Qiskit.

You may. Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this. U3 Gate, three-parameter single-qubit gate. ControlledGate: controlled version of this gate. It is restricted to 3 parameters, and so cannot cover generic two-qubit. In Qiskit's convention, higher qubit indices are more significant. In many textbooks, controlled gates are.

Thus a textbook matrix for this. U1Gate self. U3Gate - self. U3Gate self.In quantum computing and specifically the quantum circuit model of computation, a quantum logic gate or simply quantum gate is a basic quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits.

They are the building blocks of quantum circuits, like classical logic gates are for conventional digital circuits. Unlike many classical logic gates, quantum logic gates are reversible.

However, it is possible to perform classical computing using only reversible gates. For example, the reversible Toffoli gate can implement all Boolean functions, often at the cost of having to use ancilla bits. The Toffoli gate has a direct quantum equivalent, showing that quantum circuits can perform all operations performed by classical circuits.

Quantum logic gates are represented by unitary matrices. The base vectors are the possible outcomes if measured, and a quantum state is a linear combination of these outcomes.

The most common quantum gates operate on spaces of one or two qubits, just like the common classical logic gates operate on one or two bits. Quantum states are typically represented by "kets", from a mathematical notation known as bra-ket.

These values determine the probability of measuring a 0 or a 1, when measuring the state of the qubit. See measurement below for details. The tensor product or kronecker product is used to combine quantum states. The combined state of two qubits is the tensor product of the two qubits. The Hadamard gate acts on a single qubit. It is represented by the Hadamard matrix :. The Hadamard gate is the one-qubit version of the quantum Fourier transform.

The Pauli-X gate acts on a single qubit. Due to this nature, it is sometimes called bit-flip. It is represented by the Pauli X matrix :. The Pauli-Y gate acts on a single qubit. It is represented by the Pauli Y matrix:. The Pauli-Z gate acts on a single qubit.

Due to this nature, it is sometimes called phase-flip. It is represented by the Pauli Z matrix:. Squared root-gates can be constructed for all other gates by finding a unitary matrix that, multiplied by itself, yields the gate one wishes to construct the squared root gate of.

All rational exponents of all gates can be found similarly. The swap gate swaps two qubits. Controlled gates act on 2 or more qubits, where one or more qubits act as a control for some operation.

### Hadamard gate

It maps the basis states as follows. The quantum Toffoli gate is the same gate, defined for 3 qubits. It is an example of a controlled gate. Since it is the quantum analog of a classical gate, it is completely specified by its truth table.

The Toffoli gate is universal when combined with the single qubit Hadamard gate. It is universal for classical computation. It has the useful property that the numbers of 0s and 1s are conserved throughout, which in the billiard ball model means the same number of balls are output as input.Length: 8. Standard platform length: m. Rolling stock used: U 2U 11V. There is a continuous service in the nights before Saturdays, Sundays and holidays with trains every 15 minutes. Ottakring: "Otaccher's village" - Station opened in Ottakring is the name of Vienna's 16th district.

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